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Glossary of Eyesight Conditions

Every industry has its own language and terms. These words and phrases can be confusing to anyone who is not part of the daily operations of a specific industry, and the optometry field is no exception.

To help you understand the regularly used eye and vision conditions, we’ve created this handy reference guide. Here you’ll find valuable information allowing you to comprehend and communicate your eye care needs.


This means people are nearsighted and have trouble seeing objects at a distance.


Hyperopia or farsightedness is when people struggle to see nearby objects.


This phenomenon refers to the inability to see up close and usually takes place after the age of forty.


This is a type of refractive error. Those with astigmatism will have trouble seeing small print at far and near distances.


These numbers are commonly used to refer to a perfect eye. This is the way an optometrist will record the vision potential.


Amblyopia is also called lazy eye. It is when an eye fails to see the 20/20 line. There are many reasons for this vision disorder to occur; an eye turn is one possible cause.


A cataract develops when a film appears on an eye’s natural lens. Typically it’s an age-related change and frequently found among the senior population. However, medications, trauma and certain systemic conditions can also cause a cataract at any age.


Glaucoma is an irreversible condition of the optic nerve and can lead to blindness. It cannot be cured, but it can be managed with intervention ( drops, surgery or a combination of both)


Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive equipment piece that examines the retina and optic nerve and macula in cross-sections.


Keratoconus is a condition in which the cornea is irregularly conical in shape, and consequently, a patient feels blurred in vision.


It is a lens design which allows patients to be hands-free with their glasses and provides clear vision at all distances with a seamless transition between the near, far and middle zone.

Visual field.

This is a subjective type of test that investigates the central or peripheral field of view with different intensities of lights used as targets presented.

If you’re looking for professional eye care services in East York, Toronto, reach out Optometrists P Sidhu & Associates. We serve the optometric needs of families across Brampton, Vaughan, Markham, North York, Scarborough, York, Etobicoke, Toronto, and the GTA. Before performing any eye exam procedure, we complete a few diagnostic tests.


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